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de Brus / de Bruce

Bruce Coat of Arms
Gisborough Priory
Gisborough Priory*
Robert de Brus 1st Lord of Annandale was born about 1078 and died 1141. He was an early 12th century Norman baron and knight, the first of the Bruce dynasty of Scotland and England. Historians today maintain that Robert de Brus may have come from Brix, Manche, near Cherbourg in the Cotentin Peninsula, and came to Britain after King Henry I of England's conquest of Normandy, about the same time as Alan fitz Flaad, ancestor of the  Stewarts/Stuart Royal Families).

Lordship of Annandale was established by David I, King of Scotland. 1 "By 1160, the Anglo-Norman de Brus (Bruce) family, had become the Lords of Annandale. Robert de Brus Lord of Skelton in the Cleveland area of Yorkshire, was a notable figure at the court of King Henry I of England, where he became intimate with Prince David of Scotland, that monarch's brother-in-law. When the Prince became King David I of Scotland, in 1124, Bruce obtained from him the Lordship of Annandale, and great possessions in the south of Scotland.  He is said to have married, Agnes, daughter of Geoffrey Bainard, Sheriff of York and secondly, Agnes,  daughter and heiress of Fulk de Pagnall, Lord of Carleton, North Yorkshire.
Robert de Brus possibly had two sons. It is not clear by which wife the children were borne.  
  • Robert de Brus 2nd Lord of Annandale, born 1138
  • Adam de Brus, Lord of Skelton2, whose descendants held lands in England as Lords of Skelton, until extinction 1271.
*Gisborough Priory is a ruined former Augustinian priory in the town of Guisborough, now in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It was founded in 1119 as the Priory of St. Mary by Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale

Robert de Brus 2nd Lord of Annandale,"the Cadet", flourished 1138,  died in 1194.  He was the son of Robert de Brus 1st Lord of Annandale. His wife was Eufemia de Aumale, daughter of  Ingleram de Aumale, born 1111 in Aumale, Seine-Maritime, France and was the son of Stephen Count of Aumale, born before 1070 and died 1127. Stephen's wife was Hawise de Mortimer in 1138, b: about 1083 in Herfordshire, England. Robert's father, (the 1st Lord of Annandale) renounced his allegiance to David I when he invaded England before the 5Battle of the Standard to support his niece Matilda's claim to the English throne against that of King Stephen. Robert II. Robert de Brus 2nd (the son) remained loyal to David and took over his father's holdings in Scotland. Robert was buried at Gisborough Priory in the North Riding, Yorkshire, England, a monastery founded by his father Robert I de Brus.
Robert de Brus and Eufemia de Aumale, had five children:
  • Robert III de Brus died circa 1191 was the oldest son of Robert de Brus, 2nd Lord of Annandale and predeceased his father did not inherit the lordship of Annandale, which passed to his brother, William de Brus, 3rd Lord. He married in 1183, Isabella Mac William (Isibéal inghean Uilleim), illegitimate daughter of King William I of Scotland through the latter's liaison with a daughter of Robert Avenel lord of Eskdale. There were no children. 
  • William de Brus, 3rd Lord of Annandale, who died 16 July 1212.
  • Bernard
  • Agatha
  • Euphemia
William de Brus 3rd Lord of Annandale, was born about 1103 in Annandale, Dumfrieshire, Scotland , and died 16 July 1212, in Annandale, Dumfrieshire, Scotland. He was the second eldest son of Robert de Brus 2nd Lord of Annandale and Euphemia de Aumale 3William de Brus possessed large estates in the north of England. He obtained from King John, the grant of a weekly market at Hartlepool, and granted lands to the canons of Gisburn.Very little else is known about William's activities He married  Beatrice de Teyden, the daughter of Paulinus de Teyden and Beatrice de Evermure. The couple had two sons:
  • Robert de Brus 4th Lord of Annandale born about 1195
  • William de Brus
Robert de Brewes 4th Lord of Annandale born Annandale, Dumfrieshire, Scotland about 11956 and died between 1226-1233 1226 in Stilton, Huntingtonshire, England. He married Lady Isabella of Huntingdon4. She was the daughter of David of Scotland, 9th Earl of Huntingdon and Matilda of Chester4. With this marriage he acquired the manors of Writtle and Hatfield Broadoak, Essex in England7.
 Robert de Brewes 4th Lord of Annandale was buried in Gisborough Priory or in Saltre Abbey, near Stilton, Gloucestershire.
The couple had three children:
  • Bernard Bruce, Lord of Connington and Exton, died circa 5 August 1266
  • Beatrice de Brewes, married Hugh de Neville7, died before July 1273
  • Sir Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, born 1210, died 31 March 1295
Sir Robert de Brus 5th Lord of  Annandale, born about 1210 and died 31 March 1295 in Lochmaben Castle, was the son of  Robert de Brus 4th Lord of Annandale and Lady Isabella of Huntingdon. Robert de Brus 5th Lord of  Annandale married first, Isabella de Clare, daughter of  Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Gloucester and Lady Isabella Marshal, on 12 May 1240. Secondly, he married, he married Christina de Ireby, daughter of Sir William de Ireby and Christian de Hodeholme, on 3 May 1273 at Hoddam, in Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland.

The death of Alexander III of Scotland in 1286 without a male heir, the throne of Scotland had become the possession of the three-year old Margaret, Maid of Norway, the granddaughter of the King. In 1290 the Guardians of Scotland, who had been appointed to govern the realm during the young Queen's minority, drew up the Treaty of Birgham, a marriage contract between Margaret and the then five-year old Edward of Caernarvon, the heir to the English throne. The treaty, amongst other points, contained the provision that although any offspring of this marriage would be heir to the crowns of both England and Scotland, the latter kingdom should be "separate, apart and free in itself without subjection to the English Kingdom".The intent, clearly, was to keep Scotland as an independent entity. In early October the young Queen died in Orkney on her way to Scotland, leaving Scotland without an undisputed successor to the throne.

After8 this extinction of the senior line of the Scottish royal house (the line of William I of Scotland) David of Huntingdon's descendants were the primary candidates for the throne. The two most notable claimants to the throne, John Balliol and Robert (de Brus the 5th) himself represented descent through David's daughters Margaret and Isobel respectively. To avoid the catastrophe of open warfare between the Bruce and Balliol, the Guardians and other Scots magnates asked Edward I to intervene. Edward I gave judgment on the Scottish case on November 17, 1292 in favour of John Balliol, with his son Edward becoming heir designate. This decision had the support of the majority of Scots nobles and magnates, even a number of those appointed by Bruce as auditors. Of special note was the support of John II Comyn, another competitor and head of the most powerful baronial family in Scotland, who was married to Balliol's sister, Eleanor.

So, John Balliol became King of Scotland, reigning from 17 November 1292 – 10 July 1296.  But, that was not the end of the story.  This is a preamble to what happens as time moves on.

Sir Robert de Brus died at Lochmaben Castle and was buried at Guisborough Priory on 17 April 1295.
They had a son,
  • Robert de Brus 6th Lord of Annandale, born in Writtle, Chelmsford, Essex, England.
Robert de Brus 6th Lord of Annandale4, born in Writtie, Chelmsford, Essex, England  was the son of Robert de Brus 5th Lord of  Annandale and Isabella of Gloucester and Hertford. Robert de Brus 6th Lord of Annandale He married, first, Margaret, Countess of Carrick, daughter of Neil, 2nd Earl of Carrick and Margaret Stewart, in 1271 at Turnberry Castle, Turnberry, Ayrshire, Scotland, without Royal consent, and so she had to pay a heavy fine.  He married, secondly, Alianore___9 after 1292.  He succeeded to the title of Lord of Annandale before 4 July 1295.  He fought in the Battle of Dunbar on 28 April 1296, with King Edward I.  He was created 1st Lord Brus [England by writ] on 15 March 1297. He died before 4 April 1304 and was buried at Abbey of Holm Cultram.
The children of Robert de Brus 6th Lord of Annandal and Margaret, Countess of Carrick were:
  •     Edward de Bruce, 1st Earl and last of Carrick  died 14 October 1318
  •     Sir Thomas Bruce died 9 February 1307
  •     Alexander Bruce died 9 February 1307
  •     Neil Bruce died circa September 1306
  •     Lady Mary Bruce  died before 22 September 1323
  •     Lady Christina Bruce  died 1356/57
  •     Margaret Bruce 
  •     Matilda Bruce  died between 1323 - 1329
  •     Robert I Bruce, King of Scotland  born 11 July 1274, died 7 June 1329
  •     Isabella Bruce  born circa 1275  died 1358

Robert the Bruce King of Scotland
Robert the Bruce King of  Scots
Robert the Bruce King of  Scots,4 born 11 July 1274 in Writtle, Chelmsford, Essex, England, died 7 June 1329, was the son of Robert de Brus 6th Lord of Annandale and Marjorie of Carrick.  They had  a daughter, By this marriage he acquired the manors of Writtle and Hatfield Broadoak, Essex in England. He married, secondly, Lady Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster and Margaret de Burgh, in 1302.

He was created 1st Earl of Carrick [Scotland] on 27 October 1292. He succeeded to the title of Lord of Annandale between 1295 and 1304. He succeeded to the title of 2nd Lord Brus [E., 1297] circa April 1304. On 20 February 1305/6 he was attainted, and his English estates declared forfeit by King Edward I. He gained the title of King Robert I of Scotland on 25 March 1306. 2 He was crowned King of Scotland on 27 March 1306 at Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland. He fought in the Battle of Bannockburn on 24 June 1314 at Bannockburn, Stirlingshire, Scotland.

He died on 7 June 1329 at age 54 at Cardoss Castle, Cardross, Argyllshire, Scotland. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.
 
Children of Robert I Bruce, King of Scotland
  •     Sir Neil of Carrick  died 17 October 1346
  •     Walter of Odistoun
  •     Christina of Carrick
  •     Robert Bruce, Baron of Liddesdale  born between 1302 - 1314, died 12 August 1332
  •     Elizabeth Bruce  born before 1327
Children of Robert I Bruce, King of Scotland and Lady Elizabeth de Burgh
  •     David II Bruce, King of Scotland b. 5 Mar 1323/24, d. 22 Feb 1370/71
  •     Margaret Bruce born before 1327, died bet 30 Mar 1346 - 9 Nov 1347
  •     Matilda Bruce born b 1327, d. 20 Jul 1353
  •     John Bruce b Oct 1327
Child of Robert Bruce I, King of Scotland and Isabella, Lady of Mar
  • Marjorie Bruce, born December 1296 and died 2 March 1316. She married Robert Stewart 6th High Steward of Scotland. Her son succeeded his childless uncle David II of Scotland in 1371 as King Robert II. Her descendants include the House of Stuart and all their successors on the throne of Scotland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom.  Her mother, Isabella, a nineteen-year-old noblewoman from the Clan Mar, died soon after giving birth to her. Her father was then the Earl of Carrick, and her mother died the Countess of Carrick; she never became Queen. Marjorie was named after her father's mother, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick.

    According to legend, her parents had been very much in love, and Robert the Bruce did not remarry until Marjorie was six years old. In 1302, a courtier named Elizabeth de Burgh became her stepmother.

    On 27 March 1306, her father was crowned King of Scots at Scone, Perthshire, and Marjorie, then nine years old, became a Princess of Scotland.
David II Bruce, King of Scotland
David II, King of Scotland
David II Bruce, King of Scotland11 was born on 5 March 1323/24 at Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland, the son of Robert I Bruce, King of Scotland and Lady Elizabeth de Burgh. He married, first, Joanna 'of the Tower' Plantagenet, daughter of Edward II, King of England and Isabelle de France, on 17 July 1328 at Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland, England. He married, secondly, Margaret Drummond, daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond, 10th Thane of Lennox and Margaret de Graham, on 20 February 1363/64 at Inchmurdach Manor, Fife, Scotland.  He and Margaret Drummond were divorced circa 20 March 1370. 

He was crowned King of Scotland on 24 November 1331 at Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland.  He was deposed as King of Scotland in August 1332.  He gained the title of King David II of Scotland in December 1332.  He was deposed as King of Scotland in 1333.  He gained the title of King David II of Scotland in 1336.  In 1346 he attempted to invade England whilst Edward III was preoccupied with France and Phillip IV. Following a battle and rout at Neville's Cross near Durham, David was captured by the English on 17 October 1346, and held captive until the Treaty of Berwick was signed in October 1357.
He died unexpectedly on 22 February 1370/71 at age 46 at Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland, without issue.  He was buried at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland. He was succeeded by his nephew, Robert Stewart, the first Stewart King of Scotland. Robert, the hereditary High Steward of Scotland and grandson of Robert Bruce, is crowned.   See Robert Stewart.
Marjorie Bruce married Walter Stewart 6th High Steward of Scotland  for more information about this family.
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Sources and footnotes:
1
Wickipedia article, Lochmaben(Internet)
2Wickipedia article, Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale (Internet)

3 Wickipedia article, William de Brus, 3rd Lord (Internet)
4the Peerage, (Internet)
5The Battle of the Standard, sometimes called the Battle of Northallerton, in which English forces repelled a Scottish army, took place on 22 August 1138 on Cowton Moor near Northallerton in Yorkshire. The Scottish forces were led by King David I of Scotland. The English were commanded by William of Aumale.
The Battle of the Standard Wickipedia article
6Geni (Internet)
7Wickipedia article, Robert IV de Brus, the Noble, (internet)
8Wickipedia article Robert V de Brus (Robert de Brus), 5th Lord of Annandale(Internet)
9
the Peerage Alianore ___, She married, secondly, Sir Richard de Waleys from 2 December 1304 to 8 February 1305/6.2 She died between 13 April 1330 and 8 September 1330. From after 1292, her married name became le Brus. From from 2 December 1304 to 8 February 1305/6, her married name became de Waleys.
10Wickipedia article, Marjorie Bruce (Internet)
11the Peerage David II King of Scotland
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Modified:  4 August 2014